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NL: Council of State refers case to District Court to rule again on asylum for a Surinamese transgender

Input Provided By
EUAA Asylum Report
Other Source/Information:
Referral to the CJEU
Original Documents
Relevant Legislative Provisions
Revised Qualification Directive (Directive 2011/95/EU on standards for the qualification of third-country nationals or stateless persons as BIP for a uniform status for refugees or for persons eligible for subsidiary protection- recast)/or QD 2004/83/EC;
Netherlands, Council of State [Afdeling Bestuursrechtspraak van de Raad van State], Applcant v Court of The Hague [Decision NL18.7978 of 18 December 2018], 201900219/1/V2. , ECLI:NL:RVS:2019:4105, 11 December 2019. Link redirects to the English summary in the EUAA Case Law Database.
Permanent link to the case
Case history
Related cases:

The woman, known as an LGBTI activist in Surinam, did not obtain an asylum residence permit from the Minister for Migration in March 2018. She had asked for the residence permit in the Netherlands because, in her own words, she runs a risk in Surinam because of her transsexuality. A previous appeal to the court against rejection of the permit failed, after which the woman appealed to the ABRvS. 

The woman experienced various drastic occurrences in Surinam. For instance, she was threatened, by the police among others, and was the victim of several instances of sexual violence committed by government officials as well as civilians. The District Court did not review whether these were 'acts of persecution', as defined by international refugee law. The District Court wrongly failed to examine whether these different infringements on the woman’s rights were sufficient together to consider fear of persecution on returning to Surinam realistic, and whether she can return to Surinam. The court should indeed have done so. Those occurrences can actually be reason to grant her protection in the Netherlands. 

BThe ABRvS refers the case back to the District Court to deliberate again on the substance of the case and include this ruling of the ABRvS in its assessment. 

Country of Decision
Court Name
NL: Council of State [Afdeling Bestuursrechtspraak van de Raad van State]
Case Number
Date of Decision
Country of Origin
Assessment of Application
Country of Origin Information
Second Instance determination
Sexual Orientation
Vulnerable Group